List B
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(Entries marked with 'r' were revised after March 1999)
© Chris Plicht 1998-2004
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Baade, Wilhelm Heinrich Walter()
Babcock, Harold Delos (1882 - 1968)
Babcock, Horace Welcome (1912 - )
Babinet, Jaques (1794 - 1873)
Back, Ernst Emil Alexander (1881 - 1959)
Backhuyzen, van de sande, H. G. ()
Backlund, Johann Oskar (1846 - 1916)
Bacon, Roger (1214 - 1294)
Bailey, Solon Irving (1854 - 1931)
Baillaud, Benjamin (1848 - 1934)
Baillaud, Jules (1876 - 1960)
Baillaud, René()
Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736 - 1793)
Baily, Francis (1774 - 1844)
Bainbridge, John (1582 - 1643)
Baker, James Gilbert (1914 - )
Baldwin, Jack Allen (1945 - )
Ball, Robert Stawell (1840 - )
Balmer, Johann Jakob (1825 - 1898)
Bamberg, Johann Carl Wilhelm Anton (1847 - 1892)
Banachiewicz, Tadeusz (1882 - 1954)
Baranowski, Johann (1800 - )
Barker, Thomas (1721 - 1809)
Barlaam (1290 - 1348)
Barlow, Peter (1776 - 1862)
Barnard, Edward Emerson (1857 - 1923)
Barry, Roger (1752 - 1813)
Bartels, Johann Martin Christian (1769 - 1836)
Bartsch, Jakob (1600 - 1633)
Baten, Heinrich (16. Century)
Battermann, Hans Felix Heinrich (1860 - 1922)
Bauernfeind, Karl Max ()
Bauersfeld, Walter ()
Bauschinger, Julius (1860 - 1934)
Bautz, Laura Patricia (1940 - )
Baxendell, Joseph (1815 - 1887)
Bayer, Johannes [Johann] (1572 - 1625)
Bayly, William (1737 - 1810)
Beals, Carlyle F. (1899 - 1979)
Beaufoy, Mark (1764 - 1827)
Beccaria, Giacomo Battista (1716 - 1781)
Becka, Gottlieb (1853 - )
Becker, Ernst (1843 - )
Becklin, Eric Edward (1940 - )
Beer, Arthur (1900 1980)
Beer, Wilhelm (1797 - 1850)
Behrmann, E. ()
Beitler [Beutler], Wilhelm Gottlieb Friedrich von (1745 - 1811)
Beljajeff, J. (1891 - 1930)
Belkovich, Igor V. (1904 - 1949)
Bell, Susan Jocelyn (1943 - )
Benacci, Lattanzio (1499 - 1572)
Bennett, John Caister (1914 - 1990)
Benzenberg, Johann Friedrich (1777 - 1846)
Beraud, Laurent, (1702 - 1777)
Berberich, A. ()
Berger, Johann Erich von (1772 - 1832)
Bergmann, Israel (1797 - )
Berkiewicz, L. (1828 - )
Bernard, Edward ()
Bernewitz, E. ()
Bernheimer, Walter E. (1892 - 1937)
Bernier, Pierre François (1779 - 1803)
Bernoulli, Daniel (1700 - 1782)
Bernoulli, Jakob (1654 - 1705)
Bernoulli, Johann (1667 - 1748)
Bernoulli, Johann (1744 - 1807)
Bernson, Reysa ()
Berosus of Chaldäa (ca. 250 B.C.)
Bertelli, Francesco (1794 - 1844)
Bertirossi-Busata, Francesco (1765 - 1824)
Bertrand (1755 - 1792)
Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784 - 1846)
Best, Richard (1767 - 1840)
Bethe, Hans Albrecht (1906 - )
Bianchi, E. ()
Bianchi, Giovanni [Joseph] (1791 - 1866)
Bianchini, Francesco (1662 - 1729)
Bianchini, Giovanni (15. Century)
Biela, Wilhelm, Freiherr von (1792 - 1856)
Billwiller, Robert August (1849 - )
Billy, Jacques de (1602 - 1679)
Binet, Jaques Philippe Marie (1786 - 1856)
Biot, Jean Baptiste (1774 - 1862)
Bird, John (1709 - 1776)
Birmingham, John (1829 - 1884)
Birt, William Radcliff (1804 - 1881)
Bishop, George (1785 - 1861)
Bissy, Frédéric de (1768 - )
Bittner, Adam ( - 1844)
Bjerknes ()
Blagg, Mary Adela (1858 - 1944)
Blagrave, John ()
Blaupain (1779 - 1843)
Blazhko, Srgej Nicolaevitch (1870 - 1956)
Bleau [Blaeuw, Blauw, Blaew, Bleau] (Cäsius), Wilhelm Jansson (1571 - 1638)
Bliss, Nathaniel (1700 - 1764)
Boda, K. ()
Bode, Johann Elert (1747 - 1826)
Bode, Johann Justus (1676 - 1719)
Boëthius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus (475 - 526)
Bogdanich [Bogdanics, Bogdanitsch], Emrich Daniel (1762 - 1802)
Boguslawski, Palon Heinrich Ludwig von (1789 - 1851)
Bohlin, K. ()
Böhm, Joseph Georg (1807 - 1869)
Bohnenberger, Johann Gottlob Friedrich (1765 - 1831)
Bok, Bartholomeus ('Bart') Jan (1906 - 1983)
Bomme, Bastiaan (ca. 1803 - 1858)
Bonatus [Bonatti], Guido (1230 - 1300)
Bonatus de Lates (16. Century)
Bond, George Philipp (1826 - 1865)
Bond, William Cranach (1789 - 1859)
Bondi, Hermann (1919 - )
Borda, Jean Charles (1733 - 1799)
Borrelly, Alphonse Louis Nicolas (1842 - 1926)
Börgen, C. ()
Boscovich, Rudjero Y. [Ruggiero Giuseppe] (1711 - 1787)
Boss, Benjamin (1880 - 1970)
Boss, Lewis (1846 - 1912)
Bouguer [Bouger], Pierre (1698 - 1758)
Boulliau [Bouillau], Ismael (1605 - 1694), see Bullialdus Bouvard, Alexis (1767 - 1843)
Bouwers, Albert A. (1893 - 1972)
Bowen, Ira Sprague (1898 - 1973)
Bradley, James (1692 - 1762)
Brag, Jonas (1781 - 1857)
Braham, Philip ()
Brahe, Tycho, see Tycho (1546 - 1601)
Brambilla, Enrico (1792 - 1828)
Brandes, Heinrich Wilhelm (1777 - 1834)
Brashear ()
Bredichin, Feodor Alexandrowich (1831 - )
Bredichin, Th. ()
Bredman, Johann (1770 - )
Bremiker, Carl (1804- )
Brerewood, Edward (1565 - 1613)
Brewster, Sir David (1781 - 1868)
Breymann, Johann (1823 - 1872)
Brinkley, John (1763 - 1835)
Brioschi, Carlo (1782 - 1833)
Brocchi, Dalmiro Francis (1871 - 1955)
Brorsen, Theodor (1819 - )
Brown, Robert Hamilton ()
Bruce, Catherine W. (1816 - 1900)
Brüderer, Johann Jacob ()
Bruggencate, Paul ten (1901 - )
Bruhns, Ernst Heinrich (1848 - )
Bruhns, Karl [Carl] Christian (1830 - 1881)
Bruna, Franz Xaver ()
Bruno, P. ()
Brünnow, Franz Friedrich Ernst (1830 - 1891)
Bülow, Friedrich Gustav von (1817 - 1893)
Bugge, Matthias (1782 - 1820)
Bugge, Thomas (1740 - 1815)
Bullialdus [Boulliaud, Boulliau], Ismael (1605 - 1694)
Burckhardt, Johann Karl (1773 - 1825)
Bürg, Johann Tobias (1766 - 1835)
Bürgel, Bruno ()
Bürgi, Jost (1552 - 1632), see Byrgius, Justus ()
Bürja, Abel (1752 - 1816)
Burman, Erich J. (1692 - 1729)
Burnham, Jr., Robert (1931 - 1993)
Burnham, Sherburne Wesley (1838 - 1921)
Busch, August Ludwig (1804 - 1855)
Busch, Friedrich Emil ()
Busch, Georg ()
Byrgius [Bürgi], Justus [Jost] (1552 - 1633)
De Ball, L. (1853 - )
Van Biesbroeck, G. ()

Baade, Wilhelm Heinrich Walter

Babcock, Harold Delos (1882 - 1968)
Father of H. W. Babcock

Babcock, Horace Welcome (1912 - )

Babinet, Jaques (1794 - 1873)
J. Babinet was born in Lusignan, Dept. Vienne, on the 5. March 1794. He was Professor of mathematics in Fontenay-le-Comte and Professor of physics in Poitiers and at the College Louis- Grande in Paris. Babinet helped to improve the knowledge on astronomy with his works on optics. A list of his work is in Pogg., Vol. 1.

Back, Ernst Emil Alexander (1881 - 1959)
Ernst E. A. Back was born on the 21. October 1881 in Freiburg and visited school (Gymnasium) in Strasbourg until 1900. Before his studies on Physics in Tuebingen between 1909-13 he studied law from 1902-06 in Strasbourg, Munich and Berlin. Between 1907 and 1909 Back worked for the administration of justice in Alsac-Lorraine. In 1909 he asked for a leave to finish his studies on Physics, which was granted, and left the administration of justice in 1912. He received his Ph.D. (Dr.) 1913 in Tuebingen as a pupil of Friedrich Paschen. His thesis, titled 'Zur Prestonschen Regel', covered a topic which is today known as the 'Paschen-Back-Effect'. The main instrumental improvements which allowed Back to do his studies were on the light source, which had to work in a small gap only 4 mm (3/16") wide between the poles of a strong electromagnet.

After his service in the war between July 1914 and 1918 he was head of the physical laboratory at the Veifa-Werke inFrankfurt/Main until 1920. This company manufactured electrical and X.ray equipment. In 1920 he followed a call to be Assistant at the Physics Institute in Tuebingen since he had never lost his interest in the Zeeman effect, the splitting of spectroscopic lines in strong magnetic fields. In 1926 he was appointed extraordinary professor in Hohenheim and in 1929 promoted to ordinary professor. Back kept this post until 1936 when he went back to Tübingen as Professor and retired there in 1948.

Back died on the 20. June 1959 in Munich.

References:
1. SWINNE, E., Friedrich Paschen als ..., p. 49-52
2. Forschungsbericht der Fakultät für Physik, Universität Tübingen (1992)
3. FORMAN, P., in: Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. I, p. 370-71

Backhuyzen [Bakhuyzen], van de sande, Hendricus Gerardus (1838 - )
H. G. Backhuyzen was born on the 2. April 1838. From 1861 on he worked as a teacher in Haag, received a Dr. phil. in 1863, was teacher in Utrecht from 1866 on and in the following year professor of mathematics at the polytechnic school in Delft. From 1872 on he was professor of astronomy and director of the Leiden observatory Backhyzen published mainly his observations of Asteroids. Other work included a description of the solar eclipse of 1860. He showed a close similarity in the elements of the meteorite shower of 27. November 1872 and Biela’s Comet.

Backlund, Johann Oskar (1846 - 1916)
J. O. Backlund was born on the 28. April 1846 in Lenghem, Sweden . He received his PhD from Upsala University. From 1875 on he was assistant at the Stockholm observatory, from 1876 on observer at Dorpat, between 1879 and 1887 assistant astronomer and between 1887 and 1916 director of Pulkowa observatory..

Backlund studied Encke's comet over several years and published these and other observations in the AN, in the 'Publications de L'Observatoire Central de Pulkowo' and the Month. Not. Ast. Soc.

He died in Pulkowa on the 29. August 1916. Backlund is honored by minor planet (856) Backlunda and a lunar crater.

Bacon, Roger (1214 - 1294)
R. Bacon was born in 1214 in Ilchester, theologian in the order of St. Francis, astronomer and physicist. One of his works included a description of the apparent magnification of the sun and the Moon when looked at close to the horizon. It is said that he developed the magnifying glass. His works were published in 1733 in London.

Bacon died in 1294 in Oxford. Minor Planet (2940) is not named for him, but for the English scholar Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)

Bailey, Solon Irving (1854 - 1931)

Baillaud, Eduard Benjamin (1848 - 1934)
E. B. Baillaud was born in Chalon-sur-Saône, France. He worked at the Paris observatory between 1872 and 1875 and received a Dr. in 1876. In 1879 he got the post of director at the Toulouse observatory.

Baillaud, Jules (1876 - 1960)
J. Baillaud was born in Paris as the son of E. B. Baillaud on the 14. January 1876. He was assistant (Aide-Astronome) in Lyon between 1900 and 1904. At the Paris observatory he had the posts as assistant (1904-05), assistant astronomer (1905-25) and astronomer (1925-47). Between 1937 and 1947 Baillaud was director of the observatory at Pic-du-Midi and between 1922 and 1947 head of the Carte du Ciel programme. He is honored by minor planet Baillauda (1280) and a lunar crater.

Baillaud, René
R. Baillaud was born as the son of E. B. Baillaud on the 10. November 1885 in Toulouse. He worked at the observatories in Nice (1910-24) and Marseille (1924-30). Between 1925 and 1930 he was professor at the Ecole d’Ingenieurs de Marseille and between 1930 and 1957 professor at the university in Besançon and director of the observatory there.

Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736 - 1793)
J. S. Bailly was born on the 15. September 1736 in Paris. Beside his main work, a history of the astronomy, he published a work on the moons of Jupiter (1766) and some biographical work. A list is in Pogg., Vol. 1. He was guillotined on the 12. November 1793.

Baily, Francis (1774 - 1844)
F. Baily was born on the 28. April 1774 in Newbury, Berkshire. As a stockbroker he earned a fortune and focussed his interests to astronomy. During the solar eclipse of 1836 he described the phenomen which is today known as 'Baily's Beads', an arc of bright spots of sunlight around the Moon.

Baily was member of the Royal Society and acted as president of the Astronomical Society, which he had founded with others. He died in London on the 30. August 1844 and is honored by Minor Planet (3115) Baily and a lunar crater.

Bainbridge, John (1582 - 1643)
J. Bainbridge was born in Ashby de la Zouch in 1582. He was physician and later professor of astronomy in Oxford. In 1619 he described the comet of that year and later (published in 1648) wrote about Sirius, the dog star, and about the 'Canicular days'. Bainbridge also translated the works of C. Ptolemaios.

He died in Oxford on the 3. November 1643.

Baker, James Gilbert (1914 - )

Baldwin, Jack Allen (1945 - )

Ball, Robert Stawell (1840 - )
R. S. Ball was born in Dublin on the 1. July 1840. From 1874 on he was professor of astronomy, director of the Dunsink observatory and Astronomer Royal for Ireland.

Balmer, Johann Jakob (1825 - 1898)

Bamberg, Johann Carl Wilhelm Anton (1847 - 1892)

Banachiewicz, Tadeusz (1882 - 1954)

Baranowski, Johann (1800 - )
J. Baranowski was born on the 26. December 1800 in Slawkow, Poland. He was director of the Warshaw observatory from 1848 on and published his observations and calculations in the AN.

Baranowski translated N. Kopernicus 'De revolutionibus ...' to Polish and published it.

Barker, Thomas (1721 - 1809)
T. Barker was born in 1721 and lived in Lyndon-Hall. He published 'An account of discoveries concerning comets (1757), 'Account of a meteor seen in Rutland' (Phil. Trans. 1749) and 'On the mutation of the stars' (Phil. Trans. 1764).

T. Barker died in his home on the 29. December 1809.

Barlaam (1290 - 1348)
Barlaam, formerly Bernhard, was born in Seminara and a monk in Calabria. He became Bishop of Geraci, Naples, and wrote a work on calculations in the sexagesimal system, which was used in calculating astronomical data, and about lunar eclipses. The former was published by Dasypodius in Strassbourg in 1572. Barlaam died before the 4. August 1348, on this date his successor as Bishop was nominated.

Barlow, Peter (1776 - 1862)
Peter Barlow was born at Norwich in October 1776. The events during his first years of his life are quite unknown. It is known that he kept a school and gained some scientific knowledge. He became a correspondent to the 'Ladies' Diary', then under the management of a Dr. Hutton, Professor of mathematics at Woolwich. By his advice Barlow sought and obtained the post of assistant mathematical master in 1801. He was promoted to the post of Professor of mathematics in the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

His first book, titled 'An Elementary Investigation of the Theory of Numbers' was published 1811, followed in 1814 by 'A new Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary'. His best known publication is probably 'New Mathematical Tables' of the same year, giving the factors, squares, cubes, square and cube roots, reciprocals and hyperbolic logarithms of all numbers from 1 to 10.000, together with the first ten powers of numbers under 100 and the fourth and fifth of all from 100 to 1.000. In 1817 his then most useful book 'Essay on the Strength of Timber and other Materials' gave important information to engineers. These values were gained through numerous experiments in the dockyard of Woolwich.

Barlow invented the technique of fixing a small piece of iron close to a ships compass to compensate for the large deviations due to the increasing quantities of iron in ship construction. After tests in various latitudes it was shown that this did not work on ships build wholly of iron. However, for this invention he received a grant of 500 pounds from the Board of Longitude, from Emperor Alexander in Russia a golden watch and chain, and in 1821 the gold medal of the Society of Arts. Between 1823 and 1833 much of his work was on the field of magnetism and electro-magnetism. He even made experiments in signalling by electricity.

His optical experiments began about 1827. There were several experiments to correct a single lens for chromatic aberration with concave lenses. These correctors were first placed near the first lens, but some opticians moved the concave lens further down the tube. This arrangement was described 1828 by Rogers in a paper to the Astronomical Society. By this a 3 inch concave flint lens was sufficient to correct a 9 inch crown glass. Smaller lenses near the focus would do the colour correction, but have to have steeper curves which would introduce spherical aberration. The first scope with this arrangement of lenses was made by G. Dollond for Barlow. Making own experiments on achromatic lenses Barlow had some difficulty in getting flint-glass. He replaced the flint by the liquid carbon-disulphide which he contained in glass. This 'liquid lens' was only half the diameter of the front lens and placed in the middle of the telescope tube between the front lens and the eyepiece. The first two telescopes he build with this element had 3 and 6 inches aperture and were corrected for colour and curvature by a concave-convex glass container filled with the liquid. Supported by a grant from the Board of Longitude he build a 7.8 inch refractor, and was willing to try to build a 24 inch telescope.

The Royal Society in 1831 appointed a committee to report on the practicability of this design in this size. The committee requested a 8 inch telescope with 105 inch focal length for further testing. This last telescope of this design was made in 1832 by Dollond. Herschel, Airy and Smyth examined it. They found the light gathering good but rated the chromatic and spherical aberration not enough corrected. The 24 inch was never build.

The now famous 'Barlow Lens' is the result of a collaboration of Barlow with George Dollond. Barlow calculated a concave achromatic lens which Dollond made in 1833 and mounted to a telescope. Dawes employed it first while measuring close double stars. He and Smyth commented favourably on this construction. The invention of this new optical element was presented to the Royal Society by Dollond. (Phil. Trans., 124 pp. 199-207, 1834)

After his optical experiments Barlow was much occupied with experiments for steam locomotion. He sat on railway commissions in 1836, 1839, 1842 and 1845. He resigned his post at Woolwich Academy in 1847, his public services recognized by the continuance of full pay. Peter Barlow died on the 1. March 1862, aged 86.

Barlow was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1823 and received the Copley medal in 1825 for his discoveries in magnetism. He was admitted to the Astronomical Society and sat on the committee for the improvement of the 'Nautical Almanac' in 1829-30. Beside the above mentioned books Barlow contributed several articles for the 'Encyclopaedia Metropolitana' and Rees's 'Encyclopaedia'. The Royal Society's 'Catalogue of Scientific Papers' lists 49 contributions by Barlow to scientific periodicals.

Barnard, Edward Emerson (1857 - 1923)

Barry, Roger (1752 - 1813)
R. Barry was born in Spincourt, near Verdun, on the 30. September 1752. He worked at the observatory in Mannheim as director from 1788 on. His observations were published in the yearbooks and monthly magazines of Bode and v. Zach, respectively.

Barry died on the 25. October 1813 in Mannheim and is honored by minor planet Barry (1703).

Bartels, Johann Martin Christian (1769 - 1836)
J. M. C. Bartels was born in Braunschweig on the 12. August 1769. He translated Bailly's 'History of the Astronomy' to German language. Bartels died in Dorpat on the 19. December 1836 (new calendar).

Bartsch, Jakob (1600 - 1633)
Jakob Bartsch was born in Lauban in 1600. He was the son-in- law of J. Kepler and worked as mathematician and doctor of medicine. In 1624 he published three star maps based on data by Prof. Philipp Müller in Leipzig. These maps showed the stars on the northern hemisphere, the Zodiac on a long strip, and the southern stars. Each map had two complimentary sheets showing the latitude and longitude, and the constellations, respectively.

Bartsch died in Lauban in 16331, shortly after being called to Strassbourg as Professor of astronomy.

1 G. F. Otto gives the dates 1599 for his year of birth and 25. December 1632 for his date of death.

Baten, Heinrich (16. Century)
Baten lived around 1530, wrote a discussion of the Alfonsinic tables and made own observations.

Battermann, Hans Felix Heinrich (1860 - 1922)
Director of the Königsberg observatory in 1915.

Bauernfeind, Karl Max

Bauersfeld, Walter

Bauschinger, Julius (1860 - 1934)
Director of the Strassbourg observatory in 1915

Bautz, Laura Patricia (1940 - )

Baxendell, Joseph (1815 - 1887)
J. Baxendell was born in Manchester on the 19. April 1815. He went to sea and was in the Pacific during the great meteor shower in 1833. Since 1848 he had observed together with R. Worthington at the latters private observatory at Crumpsall Old Hall, near Manchester. This observatory was equipped with a 13 inch reflector and a 5 inch refractor. Baxendell’s interest was on the variable stars of which he discovered 18, including l Tauri, R Lyrae and 30 Herculis. In 1859 Baxendell was appointed Astronomer to the ‘Corporation of Manchester’.

In 1877 he moved to Southport and continued his observations there in a clearer atmosphere with a 6 inch refractor. J. Baxendell died on the 7. October 1887 . He was the brother-in-law of N. R. Pogson. Obituary by T.E. Espin in AN 1887.

Bayer, Johannes [Johann] (1572 - 1625)
J. Bayer was born in 'Rhainae Biorum' (Rhain, Bavaria) in 1572. He lived as a lawyer in Augsburg. In 1603 he published an atlas of the heavens on 51 charts on which he labelled the stars with greek and latin letters. This was criticized by Hevelius, but became common in later years. A similar attempt was made before Bayer by Alessandro Piccolomini of Siena (1508 - 1578) in his 'Sfera del mondo', but his charts were not very well distributed outside Italy and the labelling was not adopted by others.

Bayly, William (1737 - 1810)
W. Bayly was born in 1737 in Wiltshire2. He was astronomer on the voyage of Capt. Dixon to the North Cape and on the voyages around the world of Capt. Cook, the first from 1772 until 1775 and the second between 1776 and 1780. From 1803 on he was Professor at the Naval Academy in Portsmouth and published his astronomical observations in 1784 in London. He died in Portsea in 1810.

2 J. J. Lalande gives 1741 in his 'Bibliographie astronomique ... , Paris, 1803'

Beals, Carlyle F. (1899 - 1979)

Beaufoy, Mark (1764 - 1827)
M. Beaufoy was born in London in 1764 and published 'On the instruments neccessary for a travelling astronomer' (Ann. of Phil., 1813 II.) and 'On solar spots' (Ann. of Phil., 1816 VIII.) Other works appeared in the Mem. Astr. Soc. and Royal Society. He died on the 4. May 1827.

Beccaria, Giacomo Battista (1716 - 1781)
G. B. Beccaria was born in Mondovi on the 3. October 1716. He was Professor of physics in Torino since 1748 and determined the length od one degree of the meridian in 1768 at 44° 44' latitude. He died in Torino on 27. May 1781.

Becka, Gottlieb (1853 - )
G. Becka was born on the 26. May 1853 in Pisek, Bohemia. Between 1876 and 1883 he was assistant observer at the observatory in Prague, after 1883 privat-dozent there.

Becker, Ernst Emil (1843 - )
E. E. Becker was born on the 10. August 1843 in Emmerich. In 1870 he worked at the Leiden observatory, in 1871 in Neufchatel, and got the post of first observer at the observatory in Berlin. In 1874 he participated in the expedition to observe the Venus transit in Ispahan. In 1883 he became director of the Gotha observatory.

Becklin, Eric Edward (1940 - )

Beer, Arthur (1900 - 1980)
is honored by minor planet Beer (1896)

Beer, Wilhelm (1797 - 1850)
Wilhelm Beer was born in Berlin on the 4. January 1797 and worked as a banker, which earned him enough money to erect a private observatory. He observed the Moon and Mars together with Mädler and assisted him with the publication of his Moon charts. He died in Berlin on the 27. March 1850.

Behrmann, E. ()
E. Behrmann was director of the nautical school in Elsfleth an d published some observations of comets, varable and double stars. Another work was a sky atlas of the southern hemisphere.

Beitler [Beutler], Wilhelm Gottlieb Friedrich von (1745 - 1811)
Born 14. Februar 1745, Astronomer at the Petrinic Academy in Mitau. Died 24. September 1811.

Beljajeff, J. (1891 - 1930)
J. Beljajeff was born in Mariampol on the 8. March 1891. After studying astronomy in Leningrad he worked at the observatory in Pulkowa. Beside his observations he worked on the improvement of the instruments there. His interest in geography led to his participation in several expeditions to the north and east of Russia. Beljajeff died from scarlet fever on the 12. October 1930. The elder of his two daughters, aged 7, died from the same illness two weeks later.

Belkovich, Igor V. (1904 - 1949)

Bell, Susan Jocelyn (1943 - )

Benacci, Lattanzio (1499 - 1572)
Professor of astronomy in Bologna, he died there on the 1. October 1572.

Bennett, John Caister (1914 - 1990)

Benzenberg, Johann Friedrich (1777 - 1846)
J. F. Benzenberg was born in Schöller on the 5. May 1777. He was professor in Düsseldorf and founder of the observatory in Bilk, today a part of Düsseldorf. He published notices on meteor showers and meteorological phenomena.

Benzenberg also made experiments with free falling objects in Hamburg from the tower of the Michaeliskirche and in Schlebusch in a coal mine to determine differences between the two locations. He died in Bilk on the 8. June 1846.

Beraud, Laurent, (1702 - 1777)
Jesuit, professor of mathematics in Lyon and director of the observatory there.

Berberich, A. ()
Observer at the Astronomisches Recheninstitut (Computing Institute) in Berlin-Dahlem in 1915.

Berger, Johann Erich von (1772 - 1832)
Professor of astronomy at the University in Kiel.

Bergmann, Israel (1797 - )
Docent of astronomy at the Upsala university, developed a reflecting micrometer

Berkiewicz, L. (1828 - )
L. Berkiewicz was director of the Odessa observatory and calculated the influence of the major planets on the minor planet Juno. He published his findings in the 'Astronomische Nachrichten' 1868

Bernard, Edward ()
Professor of astronomy in Oxford.

Bernewitz, E. ()
Worked at the observatory in Berlin-Babelsberg in 1915.

Bernheimer, Walter E. (1892 - 1937)
W. E. Bernheimer was born on the 8. December 1892 in Vienna as the son of the ophtalmologist Prof. Stefan Bernheimer. After school he started his studies in Innsbruck, but had to serve in the army during the first world war. He continued his studies in Vienna (1918-19) and Upsala (1920-21). His dissertation (1922) was on the improvement of the orbit of minor planet Kovacia (867). In the same year he got a post as assistant at the Vienna observatory. Bernheimers main work was on the photometry of stars and nebulae. In addition, he contributed several articles in textbooks on astronomy and translated C. R. Davidson’s book on astrophotography. W. E. Bernheimer died on the 14. December 1937 . He did not live to receive his promotion from Assistant First Class to Observer.

Bernier, Pierre François (1779 - 1803)
Astronomer on board a ship of the expedition led by Capt. Baudin.

Bernoulli, Daniel (1700 - 1782)
Daniel Bernoulli was born in Gröningen on the 29. January 1700 as the son of Johann Bernoulli. Beside other astronomical works he published a paper on the cause of the tides and one on the inclination of the planetary orbit planes compared to the solar equator. D. Bernoulli died in Basel on the 17. March 1782.

Bernoulli, Jakob (1654 - 1705)
Born in Basel on the 27. December 1654, J. Bernoulli's mathematical work, infinitesimal calculus, was applied to celestial mechanics. He died in Basel on the 16. August 1705.

Bernoulli, Johann (1667 - 1748)
Johann Bernoulli was born in Basel on the 27. July. He was Professor of mathematics in Gröningen and successor to his brother Jacob in Basel. He did some astronomical work for the Academy in Paris and died in Basel on the 1. January 1748.

Bernoulli, Johann (1744 - 1807)
Johann Bernoulli was born in Basel on the 4. November 1744. He was called to Berlin as 'Astronomer Royal' when he was aged 19. One of his works is titled 'Recueil pour les astronomes'. He died in Köpenick, Berlin, on the 13. July 1807.

Berosus of Chaldäa (ca. 250 B.C.)

Bertelli, Francesco (1794 - 1844)
Professor of astronomy at the University of Bologna.

Bertirossi-Busata, Francesco (1765 - 1824)
F. Bertirossi-Busata was born in Marostica on the 3. August 1765. He worked as assistant astronomer and calculator at the Padova observatory and died there on the 22. November 1824.

Bertrand (1755 - 1792)
Abbé, Astronomer at the academy in Dijon and on an expedition led by d'Entrecasteaux.

Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784 - 1846)
F. W. Bessel was born in Minden on the 22. July 1784. He was observer at Schröter's observatory in Lilienthal, today Bremen. From 1810 on he was director at the Königsberg observatory and professor of astronomy at the University. The observation that made him famous was the determination of a 'parallax' of the star 61 in the constellation of Cygnus, the Swan, in 1838. From this he was able to calculate the distance to this star.

His main work was the measuring of star positions. After over two decades of work he had data for over 50.000 stars which he published, together with data by other astronomers, in a catalog containing 63.000 stars. From periodic variations in the proper motion of the bright star Sirius he predicted a close companion.

Bessel died in Königsberg on the 17. March 1846. He is honored by a lunar crater as well as by minor planet (1552) Bessel.

Best, Richard (1767 - 1840)
Amateur astronomer and an observer of the sky.

Bethe, Hans Albrecht (1906 - )

Bianchi, E. ()
Astronomer of the observatory of the Collegio Romano in Rome, Italy.

Bianchi, Giuseppe [Joseph] (1791 - 1866)
G. Bianchi was born on the 13. October 1791 in Modena, Italy, where he erected an observatory. He worked there until 1859, when he was removed from there by ‘dictators’ . Bianchi kept on his observations at the private observatory of the Marchese Montecuccoli.

Bianchini, Francesco (1662 - 1729)
F. Bianchi was born in Verona on the 13. December 1662. He worked as a historian and astronomer and was member of a commission for the improvement of the calendar. He wrote 'La storia universalia' and other works. F. Bianchi died in Rome on the 2. March 1729

Bianchini, Giovanni (15. Century)
G. Bianchini was born in Bologna and Professor in Ferrara around 1458. He calculated astronomical tables for the meridian of Ferrara which were printed in Venice in 1485.

Biela, Wilhelm, Freiherr von (1792 - 1856)
W. Biela was born in Roßlau on the 19. March 1792 and served as Captain in the Austrian army. He discovered three comets; the one that bears his name was found from Josephstadt (Josefov), Bohemia, on the 26. February 1826. He visited Amici in Vicenza 1827. Biela died in Venezia on the 18. February 1856 and is honored by Minor Planet (2281) Biela.

Billwiller, Robert August (1849 - )
R. A. Billwiller was born in St. Gallen on the 2. August 1849. Between 1872 and 1879 he was assistant observer and from 1881 on the director of the central meteorological institute (Meteorologische Centralanstalt) in Zürich.

Billy, Jacques de (1602 - 1679)
J. de Billy was born on the 18. March 1602 in Compiege. He published several papers, including one on the comet of 1665 and an 'Opus astronomicum' in 1660. Billy died in Dijon on the 14. January 1679

Binet, Jaques Philippe Marie (1786 - 1856)
Professor of astronomy at the College de France in Paris.

Biot, Jean Baptiste (1774 - 1862)
J. B. Biot was born in Paris on the 21. April 1774. He worked as a physicist and Professor of Astronomy at the College de France (1800) and participated in the French longitude determination programme. For this programme he travelled to Spain in 1806, in 1817 he observed from the Orkney Islands. A list of his work is in Pogg., Vol. 1. and Vol. 3. Biot died in Paris on the 3. February 1862.

Bird, John (1709 - 1776)
J. Bird was born around 1709 and worked as a weaver and mechanic in Durham. He went to London in 1745, was recommended to Graham and made some excellent astronomical instruments. Bird made most of the instruments that were used by Bradley and he made the mural quadrant that was used by d'Agelet and Lalande. He published works on the mural quadrant and on the division of circles. Bird died in London on the 31. March 1776.

Birmingham, John (1829 - 1884)
J. Birmingham was born on the 2. May 1829. He owned an estate and was lord of the manor at Millsbrook, near Tuam, in Ireland. He was an amateur astronomer. Birmingham died on the 7. November 1884.

Birt, William Radcliff (1804 - 1881)
W. R. Birt was born in Southwark, Surrey. He used to observe together with Dr. Lee in Hartwell and erected his own private observatory in 1866. Birt died on the 14. December 1881 in Leytonstone.

Bishop, George (1785 - 1861)
G. Bishop was a brewer and wine maker in London. He built a private observatory at his house ‘South Villa’ at Regents Park and employed as astronomers J. R. Hind (1844-53), E. Vogel (1851-53) and A. Marth (1853-55). From this observatory Hind discovered ten minor planets and Marth one. In 1857 and 1858 Bishop served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Bissy, Frédéric de (1768 - )
Astronomical observer at the Ecole militaire in Paris between 1795 and 1798, astronomer during an expedition of Capt. Baudin between 1800 and 1804.

Bittner, Adam ( - 1844)
Director of the Prag observatory and professor of practical astronomy.

Bjerknes

Blagg, Mary Adela (1858 - 1944)

Blagrave, John ()

Blaupain (1779 - 1843)
Director of the Marseille observatory, discovered the comet of 1819.

Blazhko, Srgej Nicolaevitch (1870 - 1956)

Bleau [Blaeuw, Blauw, Blaew, Bleau] (Cäsius), Wilhelm Jansson (1571 - 1638)
Wilhelm J. Bleau was born in 1571 in Alkmaar. He was a book printer and made celestial and earth globes, Armillar spheres and murual quadrants. Before that he was assistant of Tycho Brahe. An atlas made by Bleau was extended by his son Johann. He died on the 18. October 1638 in Amsterdam.

Bliss, Nathaniel (1700 - 1764)
N. Bliss was born on the 28. November 1700. He was Savillian Professor in Oxford and Bradleys successor as Astronomer Royal in Greenwich (1762-1764). Bliss died there on the 2. September 1764.

Boda, K. ()
Assistant at the Planeten-Institut in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1915.

Bode, Johann Elert (1747 - 1826)
J. E. Bode was born on the 19. January 1747 in Hamburg. He was astronomer at the Academy in Berlin from 1772 on and founded the 'Berliner astronomische Jahrbücher' (Annual astronomical Almanac) in 1776. From 1787 on he was director of the observatory, he retired from this post in 1825. Bode published a star atlas containing 17.240 stars on 20 plates and some popular books on astronomy.

J. E. Bode died in Berlin in 1826.

Bode, Johann Justus (1676 - 1719)
J. J. Bode was born in Bodenburg and developed a sundial for travellers. He died on the 12. October 1719 in Coburg.

Boëthius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus (475 - 526)
Boëthius was born between 470 and 475 in Rome. He translated the works of Aristotele, Euclid, Archimedes and Ptolemaios and made sundials as well as water clocks. He was executed in Pavia in 524 or 526.

Bogdanich [Bogdanics, Bogdanitsch], Emrich Daniel (1762 - 1802)
E. D. Bogdanich was born in 1762 in Verdcze, Hungary, and studied mathematics at the Royal University at Ofen. In 1785 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Royal Academy in Großwardein. To extend his knowledge in astronomy he went ot Vienna. In 1796 he got the post as second assistant at the Royal Observatory at Ofen and was promoted in 1798 to first assistant.

Boguslawski, Palm Heinrich Ludwig von (1789 - 1851)
P. H. J. von Boguslawski was born in Magdeburg on the 7. September 1789. He published a work on Meteorites, in hich he said that these are minor cosmic bodies and not stones ejected by Moon volcanoes. In 1835 he discovered a comet that bore his name. His observations were published in magazines; he wrote three volumes of the 'Uranus'.

Von Boguslawski died in Breslau on the 5. June 1851

Bohlin, K. ()
Director of the Stockholm observatory in 1915.

Böhm, Joseph Georg (1807 - 1869)
J. G. Böhm was born on the 27. March 1807 in Rozdialowitz near Prague. He was director of the Prague observatory from 1852 on and published his observations of the occultations of the Plejades and the solar eclipse of 1858. Other work covered meteorological and magnetometric observations, the latter he discussed with Lamont. J. G. Böhm died on the 26. January 1868 in Prague.

Bohnenberger, Johann Gottlob Friedrich (1765 - 1831)
J.G.F. Bohnenberger was born on the 5. June 1765 in Simmezheim and since 1796 assistant at the Tübingen observatory and from 1803 on Professor of astronomy there. In 1811 he published a book, the 'Astronomy', which made him well known. He constructed an instrument that demonstrated the precession and became known as 'Bohnenbergersche Maschine'.

Bohnenberger died on the 19. April 1831 in Tübingen.

Bok, Bartholomeus ('Bart') Jan (1906 - 1983)

Bomme, Bastiaan (ca. 1803 - 1858)
B. Bamme was astronomer in The Netherlands and died in Middelburg on the 5. November 1858. One of his works deals with the probable return of a comet that was observed between 1264 and 1556.

Bonatus [Bonatti], Guido (1230 - 1300)
G. Bonatus was born in Friaul around 1230. He wrote a book on astronomy and a theory of the planets as well as books on astrology. Some were printed by Angeli (Angelus) in Augsburg in 1491. Bonatus died around 1300 in Bologna or Ancona.

Bonatus de Lates (16. Century)
Bonatus worked at the beginning of the 16. century as physician and astronomer. He constructed a finger ring that showed the twelve constellations of the Zodiac and the names of the months. This ring was used to calculate the hour of the day and the altitude of the celestial objects. He wrote a book on the use of this ring.

Bond, George Philipp (1826 - 1865)
G. P. Bond is the son of William C. Bond and was born in Dorchester on the 20. May 1825. He was director of the Havard College observatory since 1859, when he succeeded his father on this post. His work included the discovery of new nebula, observations of comets and photographic observations of double stars. Together with his father he discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn, in 1848. G. P. Bond died in Cambridge on the 17. February 1865.

Bond, William Cranach (1789 - 1859)
W. C. Bond was born in Portland, Maine, on the 9. September 1789. He was founder of the Havard College observatory and its director between 1840 and 1859. Before that he had a private observatory at Dorchester. Bond published a catalog of nebula, works about the diameter of Neptune and about the orbit of Neptunes moon. He died on the 29. January 1859 in Cambridge.

Some sources give other dates for his death, Gerstorf 28. January, and in the AN is 28. February.

Bondi, Hermann (1919 - )

Borda, Jean Charles (1733 - 1799)
J. C. Borda was born on the 4. May 1733 in Dax, Dept. Laudes. He made trigonometric observations in France and published a method for the calculation of the Moon distance and a method to determine the refraction. He died in Paris on the 20. February 1799.

Borrelly, Alphonse Louis Nicolas (1842 - 1926)
A. L. N. Borrelly was born on the 6. December 1842 in Rognemaure, near Nimes. In 1864 he was trainee at the observatory in Marseille and later astronomer there. He discovered 19 minor planets and at least 16 comets. Borrelly is honored by minor planet Borrelly (1539).

Börgen, C. ()
Director of the Marine observatory in Wilhelmshaven. He published observations of minor planets, several comets, eclipses occultations and transits of Mercury, including determinations of Mercury's diameter.

Boscovich, Rudjero Y. [Ruggiero Giuseppe] (1711 - 1787)
R. Boscovich was born on the 18. May 1711 in Ragusa. He wrote a paper on astronomical observations and on a new micrometer. He died in Milano on the 13. February 1787.

Boss, Benjamin (1880 - 1970)

Boss, Lewis (1846 - 1912)
L. Boss was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 26. October 1846.

Bouguer [Bouger], Pierre (1698 - 1758)
P. Bouguer was born in Croisic on the 16. February 1698. He travelled together with Godin and Condamine to Peru to make geodetic observations and published 'Théorie de la figure de la terre. 1749' based on these data. He wrote several works on optics and developed the Heliometer, which was later improved by Fraunhofer.

Bouguer died in Paris on the 15. August 1758.

Bouvard, Alexis (1767 - 1843)
A. Bouvard was born in Haute-Faucigny on the 27. June 1767. He was astronomer at the Paris observatory, discovered the comets 1798 and 1799 I, and calculated tables for the planets. He died in Paris in 1843.

Bouwers, Albert A. (1893 - 1972)

Bowen, Ira Sprague (1898 - 1973)

Bradley, James (1692 - 1762)
J. Bradley was born in Sherborne in 1692. After working as a theologician he changed to astronomy. In 1721 he became Professor of astronomy in Oxford and in 1742 director of the Greenwich observatory and Astronomer Royal until 1762. He discovered the abberation of the light and the nutation from his observations with his instrument.A lot of these instruments were made by Bird.

When he died in Chalford on the 13. July 1762 he had filled 13 large sized volumes with his observational notes. These were used to calculate new and improved astronomical tables, because Bradley's observations were the most accurate in his time. The results of his observations were published between 1798 and 1805 by Hornsby.

Brag, Jonas (1781 - 1857)
J. Brag was born in Gothenburg on 8 May 1781. He was observer at the Lund observatory and professor of physics there between 1813 and 1846 (1848?). First professor of astronomy in Lund from 1833 on until 1848 (succeeded by Agardh). He died in Gothenburg on 5 March 1857.
Ref: Hasselberg, B.: Obituary on N. Duner in: Vierteljahresschrift der Astr. Gesellschaft (

Braham, Philip ()

Brambilla, Enrico (1792 - 1828)
Astronomer at the Brera observatory at Milano.

Brandes, Heinrich Wilhelm (1777 - 1834)
H. W. Brandes was born in Groden near Ritzebüttel on the 27. July 1777. He was Professor of pysics in Leipzig in 1826 and published works on physics, meteorology and astronomy. Most of his observations were on meteorites. Brandes died in Leipzig on the 17. May 1834.

Brashear, John Alfred (1840 - 1920)
J. A. Brashear was born in Brownsville, Pennsilvania, on the 24. November 1840. He worked as a mechanic in a steel mill and made amateur telescopes during his spare time. S. P. Langley encouraged him to establish a workshop for astronomical instruments. These instuments included spectroscopes for the observatories at Allegheny, Lick, Yerkes and Princeton, G. E. Hale#s first spectroheliograph and two photographic optics for Max Wolf in Heidelberg. The biggest mirror made by the John A. Brashear Company was the 72 inch mirror for the Dominion Observatory in Canada.

Brashear died in Pittsburgh, Pennsilvania, on the 8. April 1920. The company was bought by J. W. Fecker of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1926.

Bredichin, Feodor Alexandrowich (1831 - )

Bredichin, Th.
Bredichin was director of the Moscow observatory and concentrated on the observation of comets, mainly on the forming of the comet tails.

Bredman, Johann (1770 - )
J. Bredman was born in Ovikens Soken on the 7. November 1770. He was professor of astronomy at the Upsala university from 1810 on and before that at the Amanuensis observatory. Bredman died in Upsala on the 3. February 1859.

Bremiker, Carl (1804 - 1877)
C. Bremiker was born on the 23. February 1804 and died in Berlin on the 26. March 1877.

Brerewood, Edward (1565 - 1613)
(First?) Professor of astronomy at the Gresham College in London.

Brewster, Sir David (1781 - 1868)
D. Brewster was born on the 11. December 1781 in Jedburgh, Scotland. He published works about Galileo, Tycho and Kepler. Brewster died in Allerly, near Melrose, on the 10. February 1868.

Breymann, Johann (1823 - 1872)
J. Breymann was born in Vienna in 1823 and served as Major in the Austrian army. He was active in the military-geographic institute and assisted with astronomic-geodetic observations, which became more important after Austria had joined the European program for longitude determination.

Breymann died in Vienna in 1872.

Brinkley, John (1763 - 1835)
J. Brinkley was born in Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 1763. He was the first director of the Dublin observatory and later Lord- Bishop of Cloyne. His main work was on stellar astronomy. Brinkley died in Dublin on the 14. September 1835.

Brioschi, Carlo (1782 - 1833)
Professor of astronomy and director of the observatory in Neapel.

Brocchi, Dalmiro Francis (1871 - 1955)

Brorsen, Theodor J. C. A. (1819 - )
T. Brorsen was born in Norburg on the 29. July 1819 and since 1848 observer at the private observatory of Freiherr von Senftenberg. He discovered five comets, including one on 26. February 1846 with a period of 5.5 years, and published a paper on the distribution of cometary orbits. Brorsen was honored for his comet discoveries by King Christian VIII. and received a Gold Medal from him.

Brorsen died in Löiterhoft, near Norburg, in April 1895.

Brown, Robert Hamilton ()
Minor Planet (3480) Abante is named in his honor.

Bruce, Catherine W. (1816 - 1900)

Brüderer, Johann Jacob ()
Assistant at the observatory at Geneva. Published his observations in the AN.

Bruggencate, Paul ten (1901 - )

Bruhns, Ernst Heinrich (1848 - )

Bruhns, Karl [Carl] Christian (1830 - 1881)
K. C. Bruhns was born on the 22. November 1830 in Plön and director of the Leipzig observatory from 1868 on. Before this post he was observer in Berlin from 1852 on. He discovered comets and calculated their elements as well as those of minor planets. From calulations of the path of the meteorites of 27. November 1872 he connected this shower with Biela's comet. Other observations included the solar eclipses of 1867 and 1868, the transit of Mercury in 1868, the distance of Sirius' companion and the phases of Venus.

Bruhns planned and led the construction of the new Leipzig observatory. He trained several young scientists who later became astronomers. Bruhns died in Leipzig on the 25. July 1881.

Bruna, Franz Xaver ()
Assistant at the observatory at Ofen, Hungaria.

Bruno, P. ()
First assistant at the Ofen observatory, predecessor of E.D. Bogdanich.

Brünnow, Franz Friedrich Ernst (1830 - 1891)
F. F. E. Brünnow was born in Berlin on the 18. November 1830. He was director of the observatory in Bilk near Düsseldorf from 1847 on, from 1851 on first assistant at the observatory in Berlin, from 1854 director of the observatory at Ann-Arbor, Michigan. In 1865 he was nominated Astronomer Royal for Ireland and director of the Dublin observatory. He published his observations of comets and a work on spherical astronomy.

In 1874 Brünnow retired to Basel, He died in Heidelberg on the 20. August 1891.

Bülow, Friedrich Gustav von (1817 - 1893)
F. G. von Bülow was born on the 29. September 1817 in Bothkamp near Kiel. He built a private observatory at his home and erected a refractor with 293 mm diameter (11,5 inch) made by a Dr. H. Schröder. Von Bülow died in Kiel on the 30. October 1893.

Bugge, Matthias (1782 - 1820)
M. Bugge was born on the 21. December 1782 as the son of Thomas Bugge. He was observer at the Copenhagen observatory and died in 1820.

Bugge, Thomas (1740 - 1815)
T. Bugge was born in Copenhagen on the 12. October 1740. He was Professor of mathematics and from 1777 on director of the Copenhagen observatory. He died on the 15. January 1815 in Copenhagen.

Bullialdus [Boulliaud, Boulliau], Ismael (1605 - 1694)
I. Bullialdus was born in Loudun on the 28. September 1605. He wrote about the variable star in the constellation Cetus (the Whale) and about the Andromeda nebula. Another work were astronomical tables in his 'Ismaelis Bullialdi Astronomia Philolaica etc. 1645', which he compared with older persian tables he had also published. This work also contained a history of astronomy. In another book he supported the Copernican (heliocentric) system. Bullialdus died in Paris on the 25. November 1694.

Burckhardt, Johann Karl (1773 - 1825)
J. K. Burckhart was born in Leipzig on the 30. April 1773. He was a pupil of von Zach and a member of the Academy and astronomer at the Paris observatory. Burckhardt worked together with Lalande and succeeded him as director of the observatory. He wrote about comets and published Moon tables for 1812. J. K. Burckhardt died in Paris on the 22. June 1825.

Bürg, Johann Tobias (1766 - 1835)
J. T. Bürg was born in Vienna3 on the 24. December 1766. He was astronomer and Professor in Klagenfurt and then assistant at the Vienna observatory from 1792 on. His publications included some tables on the Moon of great accuracy. Bürg retired in 1813 and died in Wiesenau near Klagenfurt on the 25. November 1834.

3 A. Drechsler in his 'Ill. Lexikon der Astronomie' gives Trier as place of birth and 1835 as the year of death.

Bürgel, Bruno

Bürja, Abel (1752 - 1816)
A. Bürja was born in Kiekebusch on the 30. August 1752 and worked as Professor of mathematics in Berlin. He became known for his work on gravitation and his textbook on astronomy which was published between 1794 and 1803. Bürja died in Berlin on the 16. February 1816.

Burman, Erich J. (1692 - 1729)
Professor of astronomy at the Upsala university.

Burnham, Jr., Robert (1931 - 1993)

Burnham, Sherburne Wesley (1838 - 1921)
S. W. Burnham published a 'General Catalog of Double Stars' in 1906,

Busch, August Ludwig (1804 - 1855)
A. L. Busch was born in Danzig on the 7. September 1804. He worked as observer at the Königsberg observatory and succeeded Bessel as director of this observatory. He died on the 30. September 1855.

Busch, Friedrich Emil

Busch, Georg ()
Amateur astronomer.

Byrgius [Bürgi], Justus [Jost] (1552 - 1633)
J. Byrgius was born in Lichtensteig, Switzerland, on the 28. February 1552. He made celestial globes and astronomical instruments; his own observations were on stars from which he made a silver celestial globe. Between 1579 and 1604 he worked for Wilhelm IV. of Hessen as a clockmaker, then for Emperor Rudolph II. In 1622 he returned from Vienna to Kassel where he died on the 31. January 1633.

Byrgius is said to have developed the logarithms and a proportional compass.

De Ball, Leo Anton Carl (1853 - 1916)
L. de Ball was born on the 23. November 1853 in Lobberich. After his studies in Berlin and Bonn he was assistant at the observatory in Gotha from 1878 on, from 1881 on in Bothkamp, near Kiel. There he discovered minor planet (230) Athamantis on the 3. September 1882. In 1883 he went to work at the university in Lüttich, Belgium, and for a brief time to the observatory Uccle, Bruxelles. From 1891 on L. de Ball was director of the Kuffner observatory in Vienna, Austria.

L. de Ball published works on the proper motion of the solar system (1877), on spherical astronomy (1912), and tables for the refraction of light in the atmosphere (1906).

Van Biesbroeck, G. ()
Astronomer at the Uccle observatory in 1915.

© Chris Plicht 1998

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